What causes Diabetes?

What causes Diabetes?

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Diabetes is predicted to affect 463 million people worldwide in 2019, accounting for 9.3% of the global adult population (20–79 years). In 2030, this number will rise to 578 million (10.2 percent) and 700 million (10.9 percent) by 2045.

Diabetes is a disorder that impacts how the body handles blood sugar (glucose). Glucose is a crucial energy source for the cells that make up muscles and tissues. Thus it is critical for health. It is also the primary source of energy for to brain. Diabetes has several causes, each of which is different. However, Diabetes, regardless of the form, can result from more than sugar in the blood. Blood sugar levels that are too high can cause significant health issues.

Causes of Type I Diabetes

Type 1 diabetes has an enigmatic cause. What is known is that the immune system assaults and destroys insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, which is generally used to fight harmful bacteria or viruses. Sugar accumulates in the bloodstream rather than being delivered to the cells. There will have little or no insulin as a result of this. While the specific causes of type 1 diabetes are unknown, it is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. 

Causes of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

Cells become resistant to the action of insulin in prediabetes which can lead to type 2 diabetes. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas cannot produce enough insulin to overcome this resistance. Sugar builds up in the bloodstream rather than going into cells needed for energy. It is unclear why this happens, although genetic and environmental variables are thought to play a role in developing type 2 diabetes. Obesity is significantly connected to the development of type 2 diabetes, but not all people with the disease are overweight. Diabetes is a chronic disease caused by a change in lifestyle. The severity of type 2 diabetes is proportional to one's daily eating habits and physical activity. As a result, if we have type 2 diabetes, we must blame ourselves.


Causes of Gestational Diabetes

The placenta generates hormones to keep the pregnancy alive during pregnancy. These hormones increase insulin resistance.

On the other hand, the pancreas cannot always keep up with the demands. The pancreas responds typically by generating enough additional insulin to overcome resistance. When this happens, too little glucose enters cells and too much remains in the circulation, causing gestational Diabetes.

Impaired glucose tolerance and impaired fasting glycemia

Impaired glucose tolerance and fasting glycemia are intermediary conditions on the way to Diabetes. People who have this condition are at a high risk of developing type 2 diabetes.


Diabetes is a disease that kills slowly and has no cure. However, the consequences can be avoided by being aware of the problem and seeking treatment as soon as possible. Diabetes is a potentially life-threatening disease that must be closely monitored and carefully managed with appropriate medication and a healthy lifestyle change. We can live a healthy and long life if we maintain a healthy lifestyle, get frequent check-ups, and take the proper medications.

 Bhagyashree Hatti
M. Tech (Food Technology)
Quality Assurance and 


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